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Do you want funds rapidly? Pay day loans are very common, but should you really truly get one? Payday loans can be quite a great choice for those who have a bad credit score and need funds for an urgent today. Even so, prior to deciding to obtain a personal loan, make sure you get all of the appropriate specifics initial. This method for you to establish a excellent approach.

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What First-Timers in a Nightclub Should Know

For every one of us, there might be a first time to enter a nightclub. Most people may have heard many stories, as well as seen the hype, and now they are ready to witness it directly.

However, before they go past the ropes, these are some tips to consider:

Q: What advice can be given to first time club goes to get inside faster and to take full advantage of their first experience at a nightclub?

A: The best thing to do is pay for a VIP table. In doing so, their first time experience will linger longer in their memory than an alcohol sticker shock. They should remember, though, to come early, bring their ID and have fun with every wow factor offered by the local venues.

Q: What additional pointers can other give them in terms of etiquette when standing in line outside the club and inside as well?

A: They should always be polite to have good relations with the staff. They should not request for anything that is not legal. Otherwise, they will be removed from the club.

Q: Will the saying “money talks” work in a nightclub? Will a tip offered to the staff or security help them get in faster?

Honestly, it will not let them go too far. For faster entry, getting table service is a more effective strategy. Or else, they should plan ahead to get themselves on the guest list.

Q: To get on the list, will it be best to speak with a promoter/club host first or talk directly to the club? How will this work?

A: Speaking with the club promoter/host is the best thing to do to make sure they will be taken care of. It will be easier to establish relationships, since hospitality is what motivates people. A promoter will get these first timers on the list and even help in getting their table set up. They will have a VIP host all through the night and to assist them the whole weekend.

Q: What should club goers expect during celebrity-hosted nights? Will they expect fans to be there for the red carpet? Do celebrities mix with the crowd?

A: During celebrity hosted nights, an ideal spot on the dance floor will let them fully view the night’s events. The red carpet can be too fast that it might be over without realizing what the flashes are all about. Many people say that celebrities seldom mix with the crowd, but some have seen it happen. Perhaps it really depends on their mood.

Q: What are the regulations when it comes to taking pictures/videos inside nightclubs?

A: GoPro’s and large camera equipment are usually not allowed. Anyway, smart phones, nowadays, are capable of taking good quality pictures to share on social media, and are acceptable at all venues.


Mind Mapping for Creating Characters

Whether you consider it using flow charts, whiteboards or even just free association, Mind Mapping has been around for some time now. People have used it for taking notes, brainstorming, and problem-solving. A Mind Map is a tool used to visually organize information or ideas. As a writer, it can be used for solving writer’s block or creating a workable outline. Today I am going to show you how to create a character sketch.

Character sketches can be very basic or incredibly detailed. It can include eye and hair color or blood type and your heroes first kiss. Many writers go online and look for pre-made character sketches that include hundreds of questions that may not apply to your work. This is where the idea of a mind map comes in handy.

For those who are not familiar with the process, don’t worry creating a mind map is not complicated. It can be done on a piece of paper, a whiteboard or using software programs. It doesn’t have to be expensive. There are several FREE programs that will do an excellent job, including xmind.net, mindmaple.com, and freemind.sourceforge.net. Some of these programs have paid versions, but as a writer, the free versions will do everything you need.

To create a mind map on any subject there are 4 basic steps.

Step 1 – Start by writing a single concept in the middle of a blank page.

Step 2 – Add related ideas to this concept and use lines to connect them.

Step 3 – Branch off each of these ideas to expand and create new thoughts.

Step 4 – Use different colors, symbols, and images to make each branch unique.

To help visualize this process I will use one of my own characters as an example. Every character you create will be different, but if you use these points as a starting place, it will be much easier.

My starting point is always very specific. I use my character’s name and a photo of what I think he or she will look like. Why do I add a photo? Because as the saying goes, “a picture IS worth a thousand words.” Personally, I put the name and photo inside a red circle at the center of the page, like a bullseye.

I add new ideas to focus on around my character. Each idea is placed in its own circle and connected by a wavy line. Why a wavy line? Because straight lines are boring and analytical, I am trying to tap into the creative side of my brain. I will also use a different color for each circle and the line that connects it, for the same reason.

I focus on six main points with each character. These include Family, Friends, Work, Skills, Physical and Secrets. At this point, it might be hard to come up with a photograph for each category, but you can use symbols like a question mark for the section that says Secrets.

This is where the fun begins. Under each main point listed, I include 5 additional sub-ideas. For example, under Family, I would list Mother, Father, Siblings, Other and History. Each of these would also have their own circle, and I would color that circle the same as the primary idea Family.

I can already hear someone saying this won’t work for me, my character’s parents are dead, or my character is an orphan. So? This is only to spark ideas. If the mother is dead, this will remind you of that and be a memory for your character to ponder about. If she’s not, you can describe what he liked or disliked about her the most.

The same idea applies to Siblings, if he has them he can tell stories of when his brother did this, or his sister did that. If he never had one, did he ever wonder what it would be like to have a brother or sister?

You might wonder why I included the word Other. Whether your character’s parents are living or not at some point someone else had a major impact on his life. That could be a babysitter, a scout leader or a teacher. All of us are created by those we have interacted with.

History would include things like who was the black sheep of the family, are all the women in this family short, have there always been anger issues? These are the things the character himself may not even realize affect his (or her) way of thinking.

I could write an entire article on how your character’s family affects the way they act or think or believe. That’s kind of the point of a mind map, you can go as deep as you want. By keeping it simple, (one word at a time) it allows your mind to keep filling in the blanks. Don’t believe me? Just say the word Mother out loud and see what images and thoughts pop into your head.

Most of the categories I listed are obvious, but I do want to take a moment to talk about Secrets. Every person on the planet has them and if you think you can create a character without them, you are sadly mistaken. It could be as simple as they never learned to swim, or as dramatic as they killed their own sister. This is also a good place to include habits. For example, if you wrote Taps, it could remind you when he gets nervous he always taps his fingers. If you wrote the word Ring, you would know she twists her ring when upset. You don’t have to write the whole reason why she twists her ring just write the word to keep your imagination going.

Key points to remember:

1st point – Keep is simple. One word at a time. You are not writing the story you are capturing ideas to include in the story.

2nd point – Use color. Bright, vibrant colors stimulate the mind. The more stimulated the mind, the easier it is to be creative.

3rd point – Use curved lines to connect thoughts. Why? Because if you just use straight lines, the brain gets bored quickly.

4th point – Add images whenever possible. Why? Because if a picture is worth a thousand words, then 10 pictures are worth ten thousand words. By using a word AND an image you engage both sides of the brain without limiting your potential.

Once you start using mind mapping to write, ideas will flow one after another. It’s actually very hard to have writer’s block if ideas come so fast you can’t keep up. It may not solve all your writing problems, but it will make things easier.

Award-winning writer/photographer Tedric Garrison has 40 years’ experience with these creative skills. As a Graphic Arts Major, he has a unique perspective on visual arts and believes that creativity CAN be taught. His photography tells a story and his writing is very visual.


Dyes & Pigments: Totally Dissimilar Colorants

The two important colorant sources are the dyes and pigments. However, there lies some difference in the features, manner of use, benefits and the sore points of each of them though quite often the terms, pigment, dye, colorant, dyestuff, paint, colour are incorrectly used interchangeably.

Colorants come from organic and inorganic sources and dyes constitute a large percentage of the organic colorants while the pigments come largely from the inorganic sources. Naturally sourced pigments are obtained from animals, vegetables and minerals sources; however, majorly pigments comprise of inorganic oxides and salts like chromium and iron oxides that get diffused in powder form in the medium of application. The coloring properties of the diffusion are determined by the form and size of the pigment particle. The dyes are divided into natural dyes and synthetic wherein the natural sources of dyes are the same as those of pigments while synthetic dyes are petroleum compound based.

Dyes and pigments both are equally important to humans for providing colour to all type of items but the major difference between the two lies in their basic manner of imparting colour. In case of dyes, colour is diffused at the molecular level as they are soluble in the organic solvent or water whereas in pigments the colour is diffused as particles because they are insoluble in either type of the liquid medium. Additional compounds are required for attaching the pigment particles to the substrate. For example, pigments for paint require addition of polymer in paint for diffusion.

The vibrancy of colour of the dyes is dependent on its chromophore molecule’s electronic properties. Colorants from dyes impart greater brilliance and show greater colour strength besides being simpler to process. Among the dyes, basic dyes are more known for their vibrancy and brightness and compatibility with anionic and synthetic materials. All basic dyes manufacturers in India will confirm their suitability for coloring cationic, synthetic items like acrylics. However, dyes as colorants exhibit low durability, solvent and heat stability and high levels of migration and acid red being one of them is no different.

On the other hand, pigment colorants are more durable, solvent and heat stable besides being migration and lightfast. But their cons include low colour strength and brilliance. Due to the starkly different features of dyes and pigments many efforts were made to enhance the properties of each colorant class. This led to the development of a new colorant class called as the Nanocolorants.

This class strives to combine the good processability and superior chromatic features of dyestuffs and better durability of organic pigments. Combining the advantages of both the colorants, Nanocolorants have emerged a better alternative and has demonstrated superior features proving highly useful in several applications such as preparing aqueous ink-jet inks, high-performance colour resistant polymer coloration, electro-photographic toners amongst others.

In any case, notwithstanding the features, dyes and pigments are indispensable elements for helping us to lead a color filled life.

What started as a small venture by Mr. Pravinchandra B. Shah bloomed, blossomed and expanded at a rapid pace and emerged to become Vipul Organics Ltd. a public limited company in 1974 under his able leadership, vision and whole hearted dedication.


All You Wanted to Know About Life Casting

In the ancient days, life-like, three-dimensional imitations of a deceased person’s body were created to transport him or her to the next world. This venerable art from the land of Egypt is now being practiced all over the world.

However, one no longer has to be dead to get a life cast done! Yes, realistic and perfectly detailed reproductions of the living and breathing human body are possible today. The 3D replica manages to capture every minute detail right down to the hair, skin texture, fingerprints and even the pores.

This cherished reflection can be captured from any part of the body and impressions of baby hands and feet are particular popular. So are pregnant bellies, intertwined hands, individual torsos and so on.

How is it done?

A life cast begins with making a body mold. In fact, this forms a crucial step and success depends on both the skill of the artist and the cooperation of the model. In fact, the model is only involved at this stage and the artist will work on his own during the casting.

The life casting artist will carefully instruct the model and decide on a pose that has to be maintained for a while. The artist will do his best to ensure that the model stays comfortable, secure and stationary.

The artist coats the body part with petroleum jelly or other release agent before slathering it with an alginate mixture. This alginate is a natural product that is derived from seaweed and is completely safe for the skin. Softer set variations are also available that is gentle for infant skin. Alternatively, the artist can opt to make the body mold with skin-safe silicone rubber too.

The mold making material is carefully applied on the body. Extra attention is needed when casting the face as the mold should capture the precise shape and yet the material should not enter the eyes, mouth or nose. Alginate molds are secured with plaster bandages to enable the mold to retain its shape.

The mold will set in a matter of minutes and it can be demolding by wriggling the face a bit. Now alginate molds should be cast quickly as the material tends to shrink and distort quickly. Plaster is generally the material of choice for making life casts. Resin life casts are also popular. It is even possible to make life casts in stone, metal or wood by using cold casting powders.

The casting material is carefully poured into the body mold. Care is needed to avoid air bubbles that can easily mar the perfection of the life cast. Once cured, alginate molds are usually broken away to reveal the life cast inside. The cast is then carefully finished (to correct any imperfections) and can also be painted or buffed as required.


Palaeocommunities in Upper Campanian Stratigraphy of Alberta

Abundant Ornithischian Fossils shed light on Late Cretaceous mega-fauna

With the re-examination of many of the lost quarries within the Dinosaur Provincial Park of Alberta more data on the palaeocommunities from this region has been collected. This has provided some intriguing information that may indicate a succession line of ornithischian genera (both ceratopsia and hadrosauridae) and lead to a greater understanding of the type of habitats preferred by many types of dinosaur.

Between 1898 and 1954 nearly 40 large palaeontological expeditions were sent out into the Dinosaur Provincial Park many led by the famous Charles Sternberg and his sons, collecting museum quality specimens for institutions such as the Royal Ontario museum, the American museum of Natural History and the then British museum (London Natural History museum). However, poor and incomplete field documentation as well as incorrectly catalogued field photographs has led to a number of these sites being “lost”. The rapid erosion of the messas and buttes within the local landscape has further complicated the finding of these fossil sites from just the photographic evidence alone.

Researchers from the Royal Tyrrell museum have been playing detective and gathering evidence so that these old quarries can be located and mapped using modern global positioning technology. Re-visiting these sites once they had been found again has yielded more specimens and important micro-fossils, overlooked by the scientists during the first excavations. It is a good job some palaeontologists are untidy, many of the sites have been found again as site rubbish dumps have been located. Dates when expeditions first visited a site have been calculated by studying old newspapers left behind by the original scientists. During the early to mid part of the 20th Century, expeditions would carry bundles of old newspapers with them to wrap fossils. Fragments of newspaper recovered from the dumps and from around old quarries has helped the Royal Tyrrell team to accurately date when these quarries were first explored.

Modern palaeontological techniques have helped produce more finds and the sites have been properly numbered and accurately recorded. This helped provide a clearer picture of the changes in environment and the resulting fauna over the 2 million years or so that the Dinosaur Park Formation represents (believed to cover 76 million – 74 million years ago).

Using this new information and the stratigraphic distribution of ornithischian dinosaurs, a time frame for major genera can be plotted. For example, no Chasmosaurines have been found in the Oldman Formation, but Chasmosaurs have been found in upper Campanian sediments dating from 76 million years ago, with Chasmosaurus russelli being found in the earliest strata with Chasmosaurus belli being found in later strata, indicating a succession. Another ceratopsian group, the Centrosaurines are confined to a zone of sediments about 40 metres deep dating from 76.5 mya to about 75 mya, after this their place in the fossil record seems to be taken by Styracosaurs.

A similar pattern of succession can be seen in the main hadrosaur types around at the time when these sediments were laid down. In earlier sediments, roughly equating to the time of Centrosaurine dominance in the ceratopsia fauna, Corythosaurus genera dominate. These give way to increasing numbers of Lambeosaurs such as Lambeosaurus magnicristatus.

This does not mean that the animals that preceded the later ones are directly ancestral to them, but it might indicate that certain genera were better able to adapt to the changing environment in this part of western North America during the latter stages of the Cretaceous. The Dinosaur Park Formation was deposited in the last stages of the transgressive phase of the Bearpaw cycle. Rising sea-levels would have made the area much more coastal and the climate would have been greatly affected by the encroachment of the sea. Perhaps the Centrosaurs and Corythosaurs were less able to adapt to the changing environment and preferred more inland habitats. This allowed the Styracosaurs and the Lambeosaurs to move in and out compete these other dinosaurs.
Ornithischian Faunal Zones within upper Campanian Stratigraphy of Alberta

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5 Most Artistic Cities in the World

There’s no doubt that some cities across the world are an artist’s paradise. Filled with the world’s greatest works and home to some of the best performers of our time, these cities are more than likely on your bucket list if you are an artist or an art connoisseur. Let’s take a look at some of the greatest artistic cities in the world, and why you absolutely have to visit them.

1. New York City, USA
New York City boasts a wide variety of artistic forms, from fine art to the performing arts. NYC is also home to more fine art schools, performing arts companies, art dealers and creative museums and businesses than any other city in the US.

Manhattan is an artistic adventure like no other. Home to world-famous institutions, such as the Guggenheim Museum, an incredible work of art in itself, along with a variety of other hot spots.

Immerse yourself in the local street art and contemporary galleries of Bushwick in Brooklyn. Queens is an unmissable attraction hosting the Queens Museum and the incredible Socrates Sculpture Garden.

2. Paris, France
Another art lover’s paradise has got to be Paris, France! Home to over 1,000 galleries, the city is filled with iconic art. The most notable is The Louvre which houses the famous Mona Lisa by Leonardo de Vinci. There is also an array of contemporary galleries to impress an artist. These include veterans such as Galerie Daniel Templon, to the newer Modus Art Gallery and La Maison Rouge. The Belleville neighborhood is also a must-visit destination for vibrant street art. The City of Light is jam-packed with art around every corner.

3. São Paulo, Brazil
The art capital of Latin America, São Paulo may not be as acclaimed as New York City or Paris, but the Brazilian megalopolis is overflowing with artistic attractions. Home to the second largest biennial, the venerable São Paulo Biennial, São Paulo is a must for your bucket list. The Museu de Arte Moderna showcases both modern and contemporary Brazilian art, as well sculpture gardens with 30 incredible works. If local, emerging talent is what you’re after, then galleries like Choque Cultural are where you need to be.

4. Berlin, Germany
One of the most varied art scenes in the world, Berlin is home to some of the longest-standing institutions. These include the Alte Nationalgalerie and Gemäldegalerie which showcase classic pieces from the 13th to 19th centuries. Modern 20th-century art collections can be found in the more-recently established Neue Nationalgalerie.

If alternative art is more your style, then Friedrichshain is the place to go for spaces like East Side Gallery, a section of the Berlin Wall that now displays the work of more than 100 international artists. Jonathan Borofsky’s sculpture, Molecule Man, is another must if you’re in Berlin.

5. Lagos, Nigeria
The largest city in Nigeria, Lagos, is fast emerging as a hotspot in the art world. Its thriving cultural scene is led by the Centre for Contemporary Art and the African Artists’ Foundation. The annual Lagos Photo Festival and National Art Competition are also attracting worldwide attention. With a variety of galleries like Omenka Gallery, you can delve into masterpieces by the best Nigerian and international artists.


Life Casting in Animatronics

The unique techniques of life casting have found favor in many other fields such as prototype tooling, prosthetics, taxidermy, architectural restoration and special effects for film and television. The advanced technology used in animatronics also incorporates life casting techniques in the initial stages of creating the characters.

Animatronics refers to making and using robotic devices to imitate a living being. The creatures could be humans, animals (like dinosaurs and sharks), plant life or even mythical creatures. Animatronics brings lifelike characteristics to the inanimate objects so that they can walk, talk and do other activities in a natural way. The movements could be mechanized or controlled by computers.

Animatronics is largely used in films (20,000 Leagues Under The Sea, Jaws, E.T., Jurassic Park, etc), television and advertizing. This differs from computer animation as the simulated creatures are actually physically present and moving in front of the camera. The characters in various amusement parks also wow visitors with the aid of animatronics.

Making the creatures

Animatronics uses puppets, models and other figures which are then animated to emulate lifelike movements. The character first takes shape as a sketch on paper and scale models are created for approval.

Once approved, an internal supporting frame is carefully built using steel or even wood at times. Once the desired shape is achieved, electronic and mechanical components are attached around the framework.

The figure is finally covered with body shells that give it the shape and look of a real creature. Flexible skin is attached to the exterior of the figure that completes the lifelike appearance.

The skin can be made of silicone, foam latex or urethane. First a mold is made by using alginate or clay. The mold should be in the exact shape and size of the animatronics figure. Molds can be made in parts to allow for more ease of use.

The body mold is reinforced using plaster bandages to form a shell mold. Once cured, it is carefully demolded and will have captured the minute details which will be replicated in the skin cast. An alginate mold should be used quickly as it tends to shrink. The silicone or latex is poured into the mold and allowed to cure. Once fully cured, the thin skin cast can be easily demolded as alginate does not stick to anything.

The cast will have a texture similar to that of real skin. It will be flexible as well to allow facial and body movements as required. The demolded skin is cleaned and finished before being carefully attached to the figure.

The animatronics figure gets the final finishing touches in the form of eyes, teeth, hair, feathers and other such realistic characteristics. The requisite color pigments may be added to the skin during casting itself. Else, special silicone/latex paints are used to color the figure as required.